Khorezm viloyat is located in the north-west of Uzbekistan. It borders the Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum deserts in the west and south. Khorezm borders the Bukhara viloyat in the south, Turkmenistan in the west and Karakalpakstan in the north and east. The climate is harsh continental. Summers are dry and hot, and winters cold with gusting winds.

The history of Khorezm can be dated back to 4,000-3,000 BC. It was one of the oldest centres of world civilization. Khorezm was first mentioned in Avesta, a unique cultural artefact and book, which contained written testimonies from that time. Khorezm is listed alongside Sogdiana, Merv, Nisa, Arija and Bactria. The ancient urban settlements of Kaltaminor, Amirobod and Tozabogyap are located in the region's territory.

The founder of algebra, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, lived and worked in Khorezm. In his Al-Djabr-Va-l-Mukobala he systematized the numbers from 0 to 9, and in fact created the algebra of polynomials. The territorial borders published in one of his scholarly works were included, with some changes, in Ptolemy's map of Central Asia. During the rule of Anushtegenids, the state of the Khorezm Shahs led by the brave commander Djaloliddin Manguberdi resisted the hordes of Genghis Khan.

Khiva is a large architectural conservation area, the only historic city remaining in Central Asia. There, the architectural traditions of Central Asia are at their most colourful and obvious. The form and facing of the city's mosques, mausolea and medreses are elegant; the architectural ensembles are very well integrated. The finest sights are the Takhshauli Palace, Pahlavan Mahmud mausoleum, Allakuli Khan medrese and the minaret of Islam Khoja. The city was founded in the 10th century along a trading route, when the state of Khorezm was at the zenith of its glory and influence. It became the capital of the Khiva Khanate in the 17th century and since then had been one of the great spiritual centres of the Muslim world for long time. Just like Bukhara, Khiva was a significant cultural crossroads in the 19th century, hosting famous medreses. Today the Academy of Maimun has been restored. The present-day city is renowned for its crafts. Many talented stone and wood-working engravers, jewellers, etchers, embroiderers and rug-weavers now live there.

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