Namangan viloyat is situated in the north-west of the Fergana valley. It borders Kyrgyzstan in the north, Fergana viloyat in the south, Tashkent viloyat in the west, Tajikistan in the south-west and Andijan viloyat in the east.

The archaeological research and ancient structures found in the viloyat show that the area was inhabited by the people of the Stone and Bronze Ages. Archaeologists discovered ruins of cities in the Chusta region dating back to the first centuries B.C.

A large city and fortress called Shakhristan-Akhsikent, destroyed by Genghis Khan, was built on the banks of the Syrdarya River in the 3rd century B.C. According to the chronicles of medieval geographers, Akhsikent used to be the capital of the Fergana valley and a large trading and economic centre. Father of the famous Babur was the ruler of this city in 15th century.

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