Jizak viloyat is situated in the centre of Uzbekistan.
The viloyat borders Tajikistan in the south-east, Samarkand viloyat in the south-west, Navoi viloyat in the west, and Syrdarya viloyat and Kazakhstan in the north-east. The total length of the border is 850 km.

Water bodies occupy 100 sq km of the area, with a volume amounting to 205,000,000 cubic meters. 22 artesian wells supply about 125,000,000 cubic meters of water annually. Drinking and irrigation water reserves provide an average of 16,029,000 cubic meters of water annually. Drinking water supplies are taken from 75 springs. The climate is harsh continental.

The ancient Sakas tribes that formerly inhabited the Jizak viloyat have always fought for their liberty. Alexander the Great was defeated on the Ilon Udti river (which means "the snake has passed by") in 329, and Spitamen defeated the 8000- strong Roman army from Menedem. It is the place where Kutaiba Ibn Muslim defeated the army of the Turkic Kaganate in 713, and Amir Temur defeated shah Hussein's army under the leadership of Shahmalik in 1368.

The stone fireplace in the Pishogor cave, an ancient dwelling place near the Poyimard River, rock drawings in Takalisae are evidence of the first human settlements in Jizak viloyat, dating back to the 12-8th centuries B.C.

The remains of fortresses, which existed in 6-5th centuries B.C., are found among the historical monuments in Jizak, Gallaorol (the ancient Kharakana), Navkat and Nushkat in Bakhmal, Sarsand and Aktepe in Zomin, and Sabat in Yangiabad. Jizak viloyat was the dwelling place for renowned medieval scholars and philosophers, famous for their unique works. These people were Sheikh Abu Ali Fayumardy, Sheikh Burkhoniddin Basir, Sheikh Zainiddin Kufi Arifkhan, Usrushony, Navkady, Zominy, Korizy, Alamkash, Nazry, which were followed by outstanding figures and poets of nowadays, such as Khamid Olimzhon, Sharof Pashidov, Nazir Safarov, Shukur Sadulla, Nosir Rashidov and an academician Uktam Aripov.

The places sacred to Muslims remained almost intact. These are Sayyid ibn Vakkos, Malik Adjara, Poyimaod ota, Novkat ota, Saifiddi ota, Savrik ota, Uzun Hassan ota, and some of the ancient mines situated in Yettikechuv area of Zamine and Uchma in present-day Forish. An underground maze called Temir Darvoza ("the iron gate") was found in Bakhmal and Gallaorol tumans. Another find is the Mink ancient iron processing complex.

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