Andijan viloyat (province) is situated on the southeastern edge of the Fergana Valley. It borders Kyrgyzstan in the south and northeast, Fergana viloyat in the west and Namangan viloyat in the northwest. Its western part is situated in rolling plains, and the eastern part consists of the Fergana and Alai foothills (adyrs). The climate there is harsh continental. The main water bodies in the viloyat are: Kampirravot water reservoir (45 sq km), and the rivers Karadarya (143 km), Mailisai (23.3 km), Tentaksai (25 km), Shakhrikhansai (117.8 km), Andijansai (77.5 km), Aravansai (14.1 km) and Okburadarye (21.3 km).

Andijan is one of the cultural centres of the country. Numerous archaeological finds and ancient structures help in studying the rich history of the region.

Archaeological monuments:

1. Sarvon Tepa (2nd century B.C.-5th century A.D.)
2. Chordona Tepa (1st century A.D.)
3. Yalpok Tepa (2nd century A.D.)
4. Dalvarzin Tepa (15th century B.C.)
5. Ming Tepa (5th century B.C.-3rd century A.D.)
6. The tomb of the Arab commander Kutaiba Bin Muslim (early 8th century)
7. Ok-Tepa (5th century A.D.)

Architectural monuments:

1. Jami Architectural ensemble (late 19th century)
2. Ark Ichi Medrese (religious school) (19th century)
3. Akhmadbek-hojji hotel-house (early 20th century)
4. Tuvakhon Public bath-house, still in use today (built in the 14th century)
5. Kalya military garrison (1880)
6. Otakuzi Medrese (early 20th century)
7. Mirzakul Bulish Medrese (early 20th century)
8. The Khunarmandchilik Ratasi ethnographic zone in the city of Andijan (functioning from the 18th century until today)

Today's Andijan has successfully united the customs of the people that have inhabited the Fergana Valley for centuries. The people of Andijan are proud of having preserved the positive legacy of their ancestors. Everyday life is managed according to numerous customs and traditions, which imply mutual respect, hospitality and respect for the older people, women and children. In contrast to other regions of the country, children are treated with great respect here. Various family customs contribute to stability and mutual respect.

At present, Andijan is the centre for applied arts in Central Asia. The world-known Elaitan culture (late 1st century B.C.) is remarkable for its ceramics and decorated ceramic items, light background easel dishes and new forms, colours and ornaments. The embroidery on the national tubeteikas (a head-dress that looks like a small cap of an octagonal or round shape) is a symbol of the centuries-old Uzbek history. Making national dolls is becoming more and more popular.

National knives, daggers and sabres are widely known outside Uzbekistan. The paintings on the handles and sheaths of the Shakhrikhan, Karasu and Andijan schools have many distinctive and unique features. Admirers of these schools can be found in Uzbekistan and abroad.

The national jewellers (zargars) have preserved the ancient technique of stamping, applique work, blackening, engraving and encrustation. The women's gold and silver jewellery is also famous.

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